This website is the official website of LIPE (The Pedagogical Innovation Laboratory on Europe).
Editorial responsibility lies with the Publishing Director: Michel Catala.


This website is hosted by Université de Nantes and uses WordPress, a content management system (CMS) solution.
Editor: WordPress


• Consulting and development: Disaïn and Webkitchen
• Content development: Virginie Chaillou-Atrous
• Editorial team contacts: Virginie Chaillou-Atrous and Thomas Burel
• Hosting: Université de Nantes
• Technical contact:

System requirements

For the best website experience, we recommend:
• Firefox 40 or higher
• Internet Explorer 10 or higher
• Safari 8 or higher
• Chrome 45 or higher
If you experience any difficulties with the above-mentioned browsers, please write to us at the following address:

Act no. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 on Information Technology, Data Files and Civil Liberties

In accordance with article 34 of the above Act, you have the right to access data concerning you.
You can also make a request to rectify or delete this data. To do so, please contact us at the following address:
Université de Nantes – CRHIA
Campus Tertre – Bâtiment Tertre
Chemin de la Censive du Tertre
BP 81222
44312 NANTES cedex 3
or by email:

The resulting files will not be passed on to third parties. In particular, we do not sell any mailing or e-mail lists.
Information Technology and Civil Liberties Officer at the University of Nantes: Virginie Caer

Authorship rights and copyright

The website in its entirety is governed by French and international legislation on copyright and intellectual property. All reproduction rights are reserved, including for downloadable documents and iconographic and photographic representations. The reproduction of all or part of this site on any electronic medium whatsoever is formally prohibited without the express authorisation of the Publishing Director.

Photographic and video credits

Audiovisual and Multimedia Centre of the University of Nantes
Graphic Design Agency: Disaïn
LIPE/Creative commons

Accessibility of the website

What the law provides

Article 47 of Act no. 2005-102 of 11 February 2005 on equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship for people with disabilities, makes accessibility a requirement for all online public communication services of the government, local authorities and the public institutions that depend on them. It stipulates that the information disseminated by these services must be accessible to all.

LIPE strives to meet the key criteria for making its website accessible in line with the general accessibility guidelines for French administrations, the RGAA 2.2.1.

Changing the display size

You can adjust the display settings by making the article fonts bigger or smaller.
To enlarge the display size, in the Mozilla Firefox browser go to the pull-down menu View > Zoom, scroll down and choose Enlarge (you can also use Ctrl + mouse scroll wheel).
To return to the default display size, in the Mozilla Firefox browser go to the pull-down menu View > Zoom, then choose the default option.


Quick navigation sections exist on every page to move quickly between sections.
About us
Level of education


Click on the logo in the header to return to the home page.


The main menu at the top left-hand side of the page allows you to explore the content of all headings and associated subheadings.

Areas for improvement

It is not always indicated when new windows, tabs or pop-ups are opened in the browser.
Not all of the documents available for downloading comply with accessibility standards.
We are working on improving these two areas.